By M. Bacon
This e-book introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of examining 3-D seismic info. the subjects it covers contain easy structural interpretation and map-making; using three-D visualization tools; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the new release and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written by way of specialist geophysicists with decades of operating adventure within the oil undefined, the publication could be critical for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum undefined.
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Extra resources for 3-D Seismic Interpretation
C M P 3 o f f s e t s3 , 7 , 1 1. . , C M P 4 4 , 8 , 1 2 . . ,C M P 5 w i l l b e b a c k to 1,5,9.. . Any regularlyrepeatingpattemwill showitself asa strong componentin the inline spatialFourier transformand can be removedby a notch filter. The applicationofnoise suppression is much moresuccessfulwith 3-D datathan2-D owing to theextradimension,datavolumeand spatialconsistency for thealgorithmto work with. This allowsthe filtersto adaptto relativelysuddenchangesin reflectordip while retainingsufficientdatato distinguish 52 - dataacquisition andprocessing 3-0seismic signal from random noise.
Sphericaldivergencegain conections 9. Deconvolutionbetbre stack 10. Shot interpolation to double fold in CMP gathers I I . Radon demultiple on interpolatedgathers 12. High-frequencynoise removal 13. Drop of interpolatedtraces 14. 5 m on near to 50 m on far offsets 15. Sort to common offset 16. Dip moveout (including approximateNMO) halving the number ofoffset planeson output 17. Pre-stack time migration using constant velocity 1600 m/s 18. InverseNMO 19. 5 km grid) 20. NMO Processinghereattercontinuing on three volumes: 21 .
In addition to a sphericaldivergencecorrection it is common to apply an additional exponentialgain functionwith time to accountfor the transmissionandattenuationlosscs. 2 Deconvolution Step 9, deconvolution,is a processthat sharpensthe waveletand removesany short period reverberations. A shorr, or no gap,givesmaximalwaveletcompression(hencethe namespiking)while a large gap (32 ms or more) attemptsto removeperiodicitycausedby shortperiodmultiples whoseperiod is longer than the gap. In practice,both forms actually perform a mixture ofwaveletcompression andde-reverberation.