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By W. E. Crum

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Halsall, Maureen 1981 The Old English rune poem. Toronto: University Press. ), 1990 437-455. Hines, John — Bengt Odenstedt 1987 "The Undley Bracteate and its runic inscription", Studien zur Sachsenforschung, 6: 73-94. Krause, Wolfgang 1971 Die Sprache der urnordischen Runeninschriften. Heidelberg: Winter. Moltke, Erik 1985 Runes and their origin. Denmark and elsewhere. Copenhagen: The National Museum of Denmark. Nedoma, Robert 1993 "Zur Runeninschrift auf der Urne A. 11/251 von Loveden Hill", Die Sprache 35: 115-124.

Even in a given paradigm like that of dag, the vowel ce, which appears in the singular, is hardly more common than a (in the plural). 16. The most obvious parallel to the creation of Γ («— I* + |) is l\, which became necessary after the period of /-umlaut. We can imagine that for some time the plural of λ f\ (OE c 'cow') was written 1 f\ I (pre-Old-English *ku-i > OE cy), and a bind-rune [\ + | led to |\. With regard to the "name" of f\ it may be pointed out that the relevant passage in the Rune Poem is rather unclear.

We can also assume that F and F were to some extent allographs from the period that /ai/ had become monophthongized to /ä/. 33 Anglo-Saxon34 runic writing certainly underwent a "spelling reform". The changes mentioned above may be considered as having started a spelling reform. But they would probably not have required a spelling reform. " (Odenstedt 1990: 137). I would insist, however, that these changes may have started the spelling reform, but they were not the main cause. The main phonological innovation that really required a spelling reform was /-umlaut, which evidently reshuffled the vowel system so drastically that a reform was more or less unavoidable.

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