By H.E. Landsberg (Ed.)
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Extra resources for Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 2
Swingle, D. , and Richards, W. J. (1953). The variability of the motion of radar precipitation lines. Conference Proceedings p. XI-4; see ref. . 56. Swingle, D. , and Rosenberg, L. (1953).
On a larger scale, similar observations have been carried on by the Illinois State Water Survey. Stout [ 1231 reported a series of radar observations over several watersheds on which fairly dense networks of automatic rain gages had been arranged. Stout and Neil1  described in some detail their experience on one such network, 70 square miles in area with 33 gages. At single points they found the disagreement between radar and gage indications disappointing, but when they plotted rainfall contours, on the basis of their two sets of observations, agreement was generally satisfactory.
The individual particles are, of course, continualiy in motion relative to each other and relative to the radar. To the extent that these motions are random, the instantaneous value of the echo power from a given target region fluctuates randomly about its mean. It follows that singlepower readings are not significant, and that averaging of several power values is always necessary when weather observations are made. The rate at which independent data become available depends on, among other things, the rate of scanning of the beam and on the relative FIG.