By John M. Weiler
This distinct source provides allergic and airway stipulations noticeable in leisure and aggressive athletes-covering issues from exercise-induced bronchial asthma to chilly air-induced rhinitis.
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Extra info for Allergic and Respiratory Disease in Sports Medicine (Clinical Allergy and Immunology)
Beck 1 2. Evaluating Exercise Capacity and Airway Function in the Athlete Kenneth C. Beck 35 3. The History of Exercise-Induced Asthma and Definition of the Syndrome Frank S. Virant 65 4. Prevalence of Exercise-Induced Asthma in the Athlete Hemalini Mehta and William W. Busse 81 5. Pathophysiology of Exercise-Induced Asthma: The Role of Respiratory Water Loss Sandra D. Anderson and Evangelia Daviskas 87 6. Pathophysiology: Role of Mediators in Exercise-Induced Asthma Himender K. Makker and Stephen T.
Most commonly, fiber types have been differentiated based on histochemical classification after staining for myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) activity (after alkaline and acid preincubation) and have been divided into type I, IIa, IIb  and, more recently, IIx muscle fibers . Although there is considerable overlap in the metabolic and functional properties of muscle fibers, type I fibers tend to stain more richly for oxidative enzymes and less so for glycolytic enzymes, whereas type IIb fibers tend to stain in a reverse pattern .
Exercise decreases nasal airflow resistance, presumably by dilation of the alai nasi muscles [35,104]. Resistance to airflow can be decreased by 30% with the activation of these muscles . Despite this active dilation, airflow resistance is approximately four times greater through the nose than through the mouth at rest and nine times greater during exercise . E. Indices of Ventilatory Constraint (VE Reserve, Flow Limitation, Δ in EELV and EILV) Thus far we have examined primarily the response to exercise in the average fit adult (VO2max = 100% age predicted).