By Saul I. Gass
An Annotated Timeline of Operations examine: a casual History recounts the evolution of Operations learn (OR) as a brand new technology - the technology of determination making. coming up from the pressing operational problems with global struggle II, the philosophy and method of OR has permeated the solution of selection difficulties in enterprise, undefined, and govt. The Timeline chronicles the background of OR within the type of self-contained, expository entries. every one access offers a concise clarification of the occasions and folks less than dialogue, and gives key resources the place extra proper details will be got. moreover, books and papers that experience motivated the improvement of OR or helped to coach the 1st generations of OR teachers and practitioners are pointed out through the e-book. beginning in 1564 with seminal principles that shape the precursors of OR, the Timeline strains the main principles and occasions of OR via 2004.
The Timeline should still curiosity a person eager about OR - researchers, practitioners, lecturers, and, in particular, scholars - who desire to find out how OR got here into being. extra, the scope and expository kind of the Timeline may still make it of price to the final reader drawn to the improvement of technological know-how and expertise within the final half the 20th century.
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Additional info for An Annotated Timeline of Operations Research: An Informal History
Von Neumann (1937) used Brouwer’s theorem to provide a topological proof of the existence of a general competitive equilibrium and, following a suggestion by David Gale, Nash (1950) based his existence proof for Nash equilibria on Kakutani’s ﬁxed point theorem. [“Über eineindeutige, stetige, Transformationen von Flächen in Sich,” L. E. J. Brouwer, Mathematische Annalen, 67, 1910, 176–180; “Über ein Oekonomisches Gleichungssystem und eine Verallgemeinerung des Brouwerschen Fixpunktsatzes,” J. von Neumann, Ergebnisse eines Mathematischen Seminars, K.
The test determines the extent of the ﬁt of a set of observed frequencies of an empirical distribution with expected frequencies of a theoretical distribution. [“Karl Pearson and degrees of freedom,” pp. 338–357 in Statistics on the Table, Stephen M. Stigler, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1999; Statisticians of the Centuries, G. C. Heyde, E. Seneta, editors, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001] 1901 Solution of inequality systems The duality theorem of linear programming that relates the solution to the primal and dual problems was ﬁrst proved by David Gale, Harold W.
Mangasarian, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969] 1920 Maximum likelihood method The notion of estimating a parameter by maximizing an appropriate function constructed from the observations can be traced back to Daniel Bernoulli, Leonhard Euler, Johann Heinrich Lambert and Joseph-Louis de Lagrange. However, it was English statistician Ronald Aylmer Fisher who, in one of his most inﬂuential papers (1922), established a major strand of statistical reasoning by proposing the method of maximum likelihood as a general procedure for point estimation.